(In the list of references below, the words in double quotes could be used as keywords to search and locate relevant sections in the cited e-books and webpages. Some of the books cited, such as Rockefeller’s biography by Ron Chernow and the anthology of ancient Egyptian literature by Miriam Lichtheim also serve as excellent materials for supplemental reading.)

Sumerian riddle:
Karen Rhea Nemet-Nejat, Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia

Knowledge and Thinking as Enablers of High Achievement

Forbes richest people in 2015:
Chase Peterson-Withorn. “Forbes Billionaires: Full List Of The 500 Richest People In The World 2015″. Forbes.  http://www.forbes.com/sites/chasewithorn/2015/03/02/forbes-billionaires-full-list-of-the-500-richest-people-in-the-world-2015/

Bill Gates, “World Book Encyclopedia set at age 8”, “the Sermon on the Mount”:

Bill Gates, “I’ve been reading about a book a week on average”:

Bill Gates talks about being an introvert:

Bill Gates, “his parents decided he needed counseling”:
Walter Isaacson. “In Search of the Real Bill Gates.” Time Magazine.  http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1120657,00.html

Bill Gates, shy, confrontations with mother:
Robert A. Guth. “Raising Bill Gates”. Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB124061372413054653

Bill Gates’ tote bag

Bill Gates, general information:
Patricia Brennan Smith, Who Is Bill Gates

Carlos Slim Helu, “He’s a loner”, “The numbers, they talk to me”, “he was at the top of his class”,  “He eventually published a thesis”, “I had dinner with him one night”:

Carlos Slim Helu, reading habit and library:

Warren Buffett, “He was shy”; “looked about sixteen and emotionally was about nine”; interested in maths, reading, trivia; “His parents and their friends”; “twenty-five-cent book”; “regarded rationality and honesty”; “quickened pulses and self-delusion”:
Alice Schroeder, The Snowball: Warren Buffett and the Business of Life

80 percent of day; “I just sit in my office”; read 500 pages; “that’s how knowledge”;  “Neither Warren nor I”; “we make actual”; book with legs:
Shane Parrish. “The Warren Buffett formula: How you can get smarter.” The Week.  http://theweek.com/articles/460783/warren-buffett-formula-how-smarter

Amancio Ortega:

Amancio Ortega, “The reclusive, enigmatic Spaniard”; “shunning social appearances and refusing all interview requests”; “Until 1999 no photograph of Ortega had ever been published”:

Larry Ellison, “At south shore high”; “was a fundamentally shy man”; “always inside his own head”; “reading books”; “Larry’s a pretty alone, cold guy”; “Larry Ellison had always liked working from home”; “My view is that”:
Mike Wilson, The difference between God and Larry Ellison (New York: William Morrow and company, 1997), pg 22, 9 and 33, 30, 35, 250, 229, 116

Larry Ellison, “reading about Churchill reassured him”:
Mike Wilson, The difference between God and Larry Ellison (New York: William Morrow and company, 1997), pg 33

Larry Ellison, “But he’s also shy, has relatively few close friends”:
Matthew Symonds, Softwar: An Intimate Portrait of Larry Ellison and Oracle

Larry Ellison, learned programming, interest in math and science, science student of the year:

Larry Ellison, “Like Gates, who reads widely”:

Larry Ellison, “Larry was a voracious reader”; “Larry was convinced that nothing man created”; “His favourite Japanese saying”; “Larry closed his eyes”; love for Japanese gardens, Shintoist:
Julian Guthrie, The Billionaire and the Mechanic

Andrew Carnegie, “My dear friend Tom Miller”; “Books which it would have”; “It was from my own”; “I do not believe”:
Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie

Andrew Carnegie, “for his prodigious memory skills”; “read like the work of an accomplished”; “Unwilling to continue a never-ending literary duel [quarrelled with a librarian]”; “His ultimate goal was to”; “with more free time”; “much of what he read”; “honest little fellow”; “at fourteen, Andy Carnegie”:
David Nasaw, Andrew Carnegie, (Penguin, 2007)

Andrew Carnegie, “founded more than 2500 public libraries”:

John D. Rockefeller, “richest man in modern history”; “ninety percent of the oil refining business in the US”:

John D. Rockefeller, “quiet persistence”; ““despite his slow, ponderous style”; “Susan La Monte saw a sensitivity in the boy”; “John never aspired to popularity”; “to other people, he often seemed abstracted”; “He was a studious boy”; “trained her children”; “grew footsore”; “Arithmetical problems most attracted him”;  “had his mother’s slow metabolism”; “unassuming man, but slow in his deliberations”; “he was also extremely slow”; “a slow learner”; “I was not an easy student”; “I have no recollection of John excelling”; “He was nothing but a clerk”; “He was methodical”; “Sunday-school superintendent.”; “Rockefeller wanted to be surrounded by trustworthy people”; “Rockefeller equated silence”;  “What in the world”; “would crack jokes”; “He defied many stereotypes”; “the more agitated others became”; “the quieter he was”; “two of his most cherished maxims were”; “Rockefeller would never have tolerated”; “Shying away from social situations”:
Ron Chernow, Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr.

Steve Jobs, “Steve would rehearse endlessly and fastidiously”; “Steve woke up with butterflies in his stomach” [Stanford speech]:
Brent Schlender and Rick Tetzeli, Becoming Steve Jobs

“Steve spent months preparing for his product intros”:

Steve Jobs, “My mother taught me how to read before I got to school”, “chase butterflies”:

Steve Jobs, “I scored at the high school sophomore level”; “socially awkward loner”; “We had so much in common”; “Woz was the first person”; “found himself at the intersection”; “shy and self-effacing, a very private guy”:
Walter Isaacson, Steve Jobs

Steve Jobs, “In about eighth grade, halfway through, this new guy”:
Steve Jobs: One Last Thing, (a PBS Documentary)

Steve Jobs, “We were both nerdy, socially inept, intellectual and we gravitated towards”:

Steve Jobs, “my favorite things in life are books, sushi”:

Steve Jobs, “No one bothers you on the boat”:
Julian Guthrie, The Billionaire and the Mechanic

Tim Cook, “An introvert by nature, Cook was an adept listener”:

Jonathan Ive, “quiet and sensitive”:

Jonathan Ive, “humble and private”; “When you feel that the way you interpret”: http://www.vogue.com/1415025/apple-design-genius-jonathan-ive/

Jonathan Ive, “I’m shy”:

Richard Branson, “when I was a young boy, I would often refuse to talk to adults”:

Richard Branson, “Believe it or not”:

Richard Branson, a journalist’s opinion (Journalist Andrew Edgecliffe-Johnson), “shy showman”, “barely made eye contact”:

Richard Branson, a journalist’s opinion (Journalist Kieren Mccarthy), “I remember interviewing you once and being struck by how shy you were”: https://twitter.com/kierenmccarthy/status/759062660188995585

Richard Branson, a journalist’s opinion (Journalist Jane Cadzow), “A raging extrovert”:

Richard Branson, “runs his 300 companies from his home office”:

Richard Branson, “I have the most beautiful office”:

Richard Branson, Inspiration for Virgin Galactic:

Elon Musk, “The most striking part of Elon’s character”; “At one point, I ran out of books”; “Musk endured relentless hounding at the hands of these bullies”; “He goes into his brain”; “I felt very sad as a mother because I think he wanted friends”:
Ashlee Vance, Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future

Elon Musk, “I was raised by books. Books, and then my parents”:

Elon Musk, “He was a really lonely kid”:

Elon Musk, “They are dyslexic, they are autistic”; “They are unconventional, and one reason they become entrepreneurs” https://www.quora.com/How-can-I-be-as-great-as-Bill-Gates-Steve-Jobs-Elon-Musk-or-Sir-Richard-Branson/answer/Justine-Musk

Elon Musk, “Before we call these people visionaries”; “I’d been friends with one person for ten years”:
Visionaries are People Who Can See In The Dark | Justine Musk | TEDxUIUC (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OxA0LESuUDE)

Elon Musk, “loneliness”:

Elon Musk in Netscape office:

Elon Musk has recounted his Netscape experience multiple times. Here is an interview with Kevin Rose in which he says, “but I was too shy to talk to anyone. So I’m just like standing in the lobby. It was pretty embarrassing”:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L-s_3b5fRd8 (published on youtube on September 7, 2012)

Jeff Bezos, “I was a very nerdy”:

Jeff Bezos, “became so engrossed in whatever”; “he was capable of really focusing”; “friendly but serious”; “Myers-Briggs personality test”; “the most introspective guy”:
Brad Stone, The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon

Jeff Bezos, “While he may seem like he’s comfortable addressing large crowds”:

Library of Phil Knight and other CEOs: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/21/business/21libraries.html

Larry Page, “he was socially awkward”, “longstanding social deficiencies”, “hadn’t been a social child”, “infamous for his lack of social grace”:

Sergey Brin “not a very social person”:

Mark Zuckerberg, “a robot”:

Mark Zuckerberg, “a touch of the Asperger’s”:

Mark Zuckerberg:

Jack Dorsey, “I guess my natural state would be through mediation of letters or through texts”, “had a speech impediment as a kid and spent a lot of time alone at home”:

Sundar Pichai:

Satya Nadella, “never an outspoken chap”, “voracious reader devouring books”, “always kept to himself”:

Satya Nadella, “was not very well known on the campus due to his introvert nature”:

Satya Nadella, “Listen more, talk less”:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kexuG-YcQFA (Nadella’s interview with Wall Street Journal)

Phil Knight, shyness

Marissa Mayer, “Peers from every stage of her life-from her early childhood”, “painfully shy”:

Marissa Mayer, “I’m just geeky and shy and I like to code”:

Marissa Mayer, studious, “dodge conversations on her way to go study”:

Oprah Winfrey, “Books were my path to personal freedom”; “As a young girl in Mississippi”:
Leonard Kniffel, Reading with the Stars: A Celebration of Books and Libraries

Oprah Winfrey does not watch TV; ”I’m never in the house”:

Oprah Winfrey, “I don’t watch TV, ever”:
Kathleen Rooney, Reading with Oprah: The Book Club that Changed America

Oprah Winfrey, “I normally don’t watch TV”:
Janice Peck, Age of Oprah: Cultural Icon for the Neoliberal Era

Oprah Winfrey, “I was so thrilled to realize ― you know how you and I are most alike?”, “I’m an introvert”:
Interviewing Amy Schumer on Oprah’s SuperSoul Conversations

Wealth and Intellect:

Paul Graham, “It’s hard to find successful adults”:

CEO Genome Project:

Introverts as Better CEOs:
Ian D. Gow, Steven N. Kaplan, David F. Larcker, Anastasia A. Zakolyukina, CEO Personality and Firm Policies, NBER Working Paper No. 22435, Issued in July 2016

Jim Collins on good-to-great:
Susan Cain, Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking

Paul Graham, “Even in the US, the most successful startup founders are often technical people who are quite timid”:

Peter Thiel, “many of the more successful entrepreneurs seem to be suffering from a mild form of Asperger’s”:

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator results of famous people are from Ray Dalio’s Twitter feed: https://twitter.com/raydalio/status/1049447954531176448?lang=en

Paul Graham, “absent-minded professors”:

Warren Buffett absent minded, “He just doesn’t know how to function, except go to work.”:

Warren Buffett, “He’s a fellow who’s brilliant but he needs people around him who can take care of some needs”:

Warren Buffett absent minded, “He was very absent-minded when it came to everyday life, even as a young man.”:

Warren Buffett absent minded, “Warren, those are your children—you recognize them”:
Alice Schroeder, The Snowball: Warren Buffett and the Business of Life

Mohandas K Gandhi, “From this school I went to the suburban school”;  “My constitutional shyness has been no disadvantage”:
Mohandas K Gandhi, An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments With Truth

Mohandas K Gandhi, “the presence of half a dozen or more people would strike me dumb”; “It was impossible for me to speak impromptu”; “ would even be inclined to keep a meeting of friends engaged in idle talk”; “The gentleman conceived thrice but brought forth nothing”:
Mohandas K Gandhi, An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments With Truth, Chapter 18 Shyness My Shield,

Gandhi’s first court case (“This was my début in the Small Causes Court”):
Mohandas K Gandhi, An Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments With Truth

George Washington:

Thomas Jefferson:

Benjamin Franklin, “From a child I was fond of reading”; “Often I sat up in my room reading”; “Speak not but what may benefit”:
Benjamin Franklin, The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin:

John Adams:

James Madison:

James Madison, “she captured the heart of the recluse bookworm”:
Memoirs and Letters of Dolly Madison

James Madison, “to avoid the nametag of a recluse”:
Robert Allen Rutland, James Madison: The Founding Father

Abraham Lincoln, “Life was a school to him”:

Abraham Lincoln, “I never saw Abe”; “My best friend is the man”:

Abraham Lincoln, “read through every book”:

Ulysses Grant:

Prophet Muhammad loved solitude, “then the love of seclusion was bestowed upon him. He used to go in seclusion in the cave of Hira where he used to worship (Allah alone) continuously for many days before his desire to see his family”:
Sahih al-Bukhari » Book of Revelation, Chapter 3

Prophet Muhammad was more bashful than a maiden, “more modest than”:
Sahih Muslim » The Book of Virtues (https://sunnah.com/muslim/43)

Angela Merkel, “She didn’t seem to care about her outward appearance at all”, “wanted someone female, quiet”, “Something of a loner”:

Angela Merkel, “she’s so nice and quiet”, “both are quiet”, “a bit awkward”, “Merkel has made a virtue of biding her time”, “standing on a diving board for the full hour”; “under-promise and over-deliver”:

Angela Merkel’s reputation for slow decision making:

Boris Johnson “Most admit they have rarely if ever conducted a lengthy conversation with Johnson”,  “Those wonderfully spontaneous bumbling speeches”:

Boris Johnson, “Like many loners, he has a compensating need to be liked”, “He is a man who loves jokes, but he is not a joker”:

“a quiet, studious chap”; “Old friends of the Johnson family still marvel at”; “very quiet, always with his nose in a book”; “there are moments when he appears to retreat into an inner Al”:
Sonia Purnell, Just Boris

Boris Johnson, exaggerated he was deaf:

Boris Johnson “a natural introvert” “he needs a lot of time alone before speaking in public”:

Theresa May, “no small talk whatsoever”, “never been one of the most clubbable of politicians”:

Theresa May, “Guarded, buttoned up, almost inscrutably private”:

Theresa May, “May is clearly quite an introvert”:

Narendra Modi,  “I actually enjoy loneliness“, “I do not enjoy too much of a crowd”, “I went alone and only went to places where I would not find another human being”, “Just think”, “leaving his wife and two uncertain families”:
Nilanjan Mukhopadhyay, Narendra Modi: The Man, The Times (The quotations are from the chapter “The initiation”)

Barack Obama, “President Obama has been roundly criticized for his introverted personality”:

Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, introverted:

Vladimir Putin,  “Putin is an extremely private person”:

Vladimir Putin,  “My husband is sort of introverted”:

Xi Jinping, “a shy, bookish youth”:

Xi Jinping,  “He would speak only if he really had something to say”:

Xi Jinping, “his reserve”; “only time he drew attention to himself”; “no sense of humour”:

Donald Trump, “who’s very cerebral, sits there and considers things very carefully”: http://www.bloomberg.com/politics/articles/2016-03-11/ben-carson-endorses-donald-trump

Donald Trump, “he thinks deeply”:

Donald Trump, “In college, I spent my spare time reading”, “outsiders never see the thorough research”:
Donald J Trump, Trump 101, The way to success

Donald Trump, “It’s time I use to read and reflect”; “The noise level here is very high”; “Even lapses in conversation are quickly filled with banter”:
Donald J Trump, How to get rich

The Boston Globe interviews Trump’s classmates:

Donald Trump, “I’ve read hundreds of books about China over the decades”: http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/washington/2011/05/donald-trump-i-understand-the-chinese-mind.html

Obama’s use of teleprompter:

John F. Kennedy:

Ronald Reagan, “not making close friendships”:
Libby Hughes, Ronald Reagan: From Sports to Movies to Politics

Ronald Reagan, “Ronald was shyer”, “had an unusual appetite for books”:
Edward M. Yager,  Ronald Reagan’s Journey: Democrat to Republican

Bill Clinton, “he had read 300 books in one year”, “he would read at least four or five books a week”:

Bill Clinton, “others recall him as a shy youth”, “basically was almost shy around the coeds or the young ladies”:

Emmanuel Macron, “I climbed the ranks with the help of school”: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/resources/idt-sh/emmanuel_macron

Emmanuel Macron “who knows everything about everything”: https://www.independent.ie/world-news/europe/brigittes-romance-with-schoolboy-macron-15-a-vision-of-love-37012778.html

Emmanuel Macron “I spent my childhood in books”: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2017-04-19/france-election-2017-what-s-behind-emmanuel-macron-s-story

Emmanuel Macron “only vocation”:

Narendra Modi, “spend hours and hours reading”:

Narendra Modi, “was able to build a small amateur library”:
Nilanjan Mukhopadhyay, Narendra Modi: The Man, The Times (The quotations are from the chapter “The initiation”)

George W. Bush, “He certainly enjoys reading and talking about books”:

George W. Bush, Bush read as many as 186 books according to Karl Rove, “In the 35 years I’ve known George W. Bush, he’s always had a book nearby”:

George W. Bush,“In 1978, [Bush] ran for Congress in West Texas against Kent Hance, the conservative Democratic incumbent”:
Tevi Troy, What Jefferson Read, Ike Watched, and Obama Tweeted: 200 Years of Popular Culture in the White House

“I vowed never to get out-countried again”:

Winston Churchill, oratory, shy and bookish:

Napoleon shy and bookish:

Osama Bin Laden:

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, “was always known ‘for being so quiet’”: http://www.newsweek.com/2014/12/19/who-isis-leader-abu-bakr-al-baghdadi-290081.html

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, “he was a quiet, scholarly”, “he was shy, and a bit of a loner”:

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, “an introvert with a passion for religion”, “shy and retiring”, “could have been a university professor”: http://csweb.brookings.edu/content/research/essays/2015/thebeliever.html

Abubakar Shekau, “a fearless loner”, “photographic memory”, “He hardly talks”:

Taylor Swift, “weird and different”, “I first started writing songs because I didn’t really have anyone else to talk to”:

Michael Jackson and other artistes:

Elvis Presley, “He was very shy, and just a sweet guy,”:

Elvis Presley “he was so shy”:

“Elvis was so shy he would sometimes stutter when faced with certain social situations”:

Elvis Presley, “because he was quiet and he stuttered”; “He seemed very lonely”:
Glen Jeansonne, David Luhrssen, Dan Sokolovic, Elvis Presley, Reluctant Rebel: His Life and Our Times: His Life and Our Times

Elvis Presley, “Struck by the sharp difference between the shy, polite man Elvis”:
Rees Quinn, Elvis

Anxiety in artists:

Avicii (the following comments are from the 2017 documentary Avicii: True Stories:
“I realized how stiff I was when I wasn’t drinking” (23:00 min)
“People’s perception of who Avicii is isn’t who Tim is. . . I don’t really like being the centre of attraction.” (40:00 min)
“Small talk is something I have to suffer.” (55:00 min)
“I don’t know how to explain to people that my life is all about stress.” (105:00 min)
“how happy all the fans are, and I don’t fucking like it and I’m standing up there and I have to pretend to like something I don’t like doing.” (106:00)

Kanye West, “You are really shy”; “As a creative guy, sometimes it’s hard for me to small talk. It’s hard for me to ask what the weather is like.”:
Kanye West’s television interview with Kris Jenner on 20th Television/Fox , dated 23Aug2013

Kanye West an introvert:

Kim Kardashian, “I’m the girl who’s too shy to dance in a nightclub”:

“Kim Kardashian is quite different in person”; “an observer and an introvert”:

Kim Kardashian, “She was always the quiet girl sitting in the corner”:

Jim Carrey, “I know this sounds strange, but as a kid, I was really shy. Painfully shy”:

PewDiePie, “much more reserved in real life”:

PewDiePie, “Felix seems to be a rather shy person”:

Markiplier, “I never thought anyone would pay that much attention to me”:

Shane Dawson, “Online, I’m this loud, outrageous, confident guy”:
Shane Dawson, I Hate Myselfie: A Collection of Essays

Jake Paul, “I don’t know if the word is ‘shy,’ but ‘reserved.’ I’m always thinking”:

KSI, “As a teenager, he was so shy and introverted”:

KSI, “an oversized version of his true self”, “I’m actually quite quiet”:

Burnout among YouTubers:



Brad Pitt: 

Keanu Reeves:  

Angelina Jolie:

List of shy and introverted celebrities (Richard Gere, Justin Timberlake, Tom Cruise, Tom Hanks, Lady Gaga, Julia Roberts, Michelle Pfeiffer, Keira Knightley, Elton John, Kristen Stewart, Vanessa Hudgens, Jessica Alba:

Kim Kardashian, Johnny Depp, Jessica Simpson, Lady Gaga, Nicole Kidman, Amanda Seyfried, Michelle Pfeiffer, Jessica Alba, Elton John, Kristen Stewart, Keira Knightley: http://www.huffingtonpost.in/entry/shy-celebrities-celebrity-introverts-photos_n_2239122#gallery/267414/1      

Richard Gere, “(My mom and dad) tell stories where I just would not speak”:

Richard Gere, “I was shy as a boy and, to be honest, I have never changed”:

Lady Gaga, “I might not be shy with people that I know but with people that I don’t know I am very shy”:

Justin Timberlake, “I was very shy as a kid”:

David Bowie, “As an adolescent, I was painfully shy, withdrawn”:

Nicole Kidman, “It was very natural for me to want to disappear into a dark theater”:

Robert Pattinson, “The year that I was 17 was one of the worst of my life”:

Johnny Depp, “I’m shy, paranoid”:

The Economist magazine’s article on shyness and creativity:

Nelson Mandela, “he was extroverted, I was introverted”;  “I enjoyed the discipline”; “I went as an observer”:
Nelson Mandela, Long Walk To Freedom

Martin Luther King Jr., “most found King to be a quiet”, “very thoughtful, quiet, and shy”, “quiet, introspective and very much introverted”:
David Garrow, Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Martin Luther King Jr., “ambivert”, “withdraw within himself”:
Adam S. McHugh, Introverts in the Church

Neil Armstrong’s life; “steely calm in the face of peril”:

Usain Bolt, “shy teenager who didn’t talk much”:

Usain Bolt, “Quiet and serious side”:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-t7Ib7HywE (Documentary maker Leon Mann talks about Usain Bolt in the video)

Usain Bolt, “a bit of a stay-at-home”:

Usain Bolt, “grow from a shy boy”, “just so awkward and shy, nothing like the Bolt we see today”:

Tyson Gay:

(Miscellaneous note: Prominent American sports consultants Vic Braden and Jonathan Niednagel say that top players in most of the sports are introverts. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/29/sports/playmagazine/vic-bradens-mental-mojo-experience.html
http://articles.latimes.com/1998/aug/09/sports/sp-11641 )

India’s introverted businesspeople, politicians, and others:











Narayana Murthy “seemed like a committed introvert”:
Ashwini Bhatnagar, The Life and Times of NR Narayan Murthy

Amitabh Bhachchan:
http://www.sugandh.com/seema/amitabhji/stardust.html (“I was very shy as a child. Very shy”)



Shah Rukh Khan, “I’m very shy. Even the people I work with on films have to be my friends. I get very awkward around new people”: https://hindustantimes.com/bollywood/i-don-t-think-i-am-good-enough-to-work-internationally-shah-rukh-khan/story-Lcm8nejeUMbPP7wrITIV3I.html

Shah Rukh Khan, “I’m actually an extremely shy and introvert person”: http://movies.ndtv.com/bollywood/shah-rukh-khan-talks-to-ndtv-full-transcript-615140

Shah Rukh Khan, “I am very shy”, “If I am flying British Airways and the airhostess asks me two questions, and I don’t understand her accent – I will go hungry for the entire flight.”: https://timesofindia.com/articleshow/978174.cms

Shah Rukh Khan, “I am a different person in my films; I am very vocal and expressive in them, but in my personal life I am a very weird person. I face difficulty when I have to express my innermost feelings. I am very shy, quiet and reclusive as an individual.”: https://www.thehindu.com/features/cinema/I-went-into-depression-but-am-back-Shah-Rukh-Khan/article15601791.ece/

Amir Khan:

Salman Khan:

Hrithik Roshan: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/entertainment/hindi/bollywood/Hrithik-Roshan-and-Sussanne-Khans-love-story/Hrithik-Roshan-and-Sussanne-Khans-love-story/photostory/34429100.cms

Hollywood celebrities:

Alwaleed bin Talal: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-33370118

Aristotle’s Problemata:
Aristotle, Problems 30.1 (from Jonathan Barnes, The Complete Works of Aristotle)

Plato and Socrates atrabilious:
Aristotle, Problems 30.1, 953a30

Donald Trump, “When I started in business, I spent a lot of my time researching every detail”:
Donald Trump and Meredith McIver, Trump 101: The Way to Success

Education and the Prosperity of a Society

The rise of farming communities in the Neolithic period:
Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel

“he who would excel in the school”; complex cuneiform writing:
Archibald Henry Sayce, The archaeology of the cuneiform inscriptions.

“As early as 3000 B.C.”; “In the matter of discipline”:
Samuel Noah Kramer, History Begins at Sumer

Sumerian School days excerpted in the book is a composite from the following two sources.

Sumerian school days (Earlier part):
Samuel Noah Kramer, History Begins at Sumer

Sumerian school days (Latter part):
Samuel Noah Kramer, The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character

A Scribe and His Perverse Son, namlulu:
Samuel Noah Kramer, History Begins at Sumer (1959 edition)

Some examples of Egyptian writings on maths, medicine, astronomy:
Ebers papyrus, Edwin Smith papyrus, Rhind papyrus, papyrus Cairo 86637

Per Ankh:

Inscription of Imhotep on Djozer’s statue:

The Instruction of Ptahhotep, The Instruction Addressed to Kagemni, The Satire of the Trades, Instruction of Hardjedef:
Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature: The Old and Middle Kingdoms

Instruction of Amenemope, Instruction of scribe Any, Instruction in Letter Writing, Chester Beatty IV:
Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature: The New Kingdom

Teaching of a Man for his Son:

“was inspired by the optimistic belief in the teachability and perfectibility of man”:
Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature: The Old and Middle Kingdoms

“silent man” versus the “heated man”:
Antonio Loprieno, Ancient Egyptian Literature: History and Forms

“Silence is more profitable unto thee”; “Be thine heart overflowing”:
Battiscombe G. Gunn, The Teachings of Ptahhotep: The Oldest Book in the World

Importance of silence in Ancient Egyptian autobiographical writings, a few examples:
The tomb autobiography of Anhurmose, contains a long list of his virtues, including the virtue of silence. It reads, “I was a silent one, perfect of character, patient.” (The Egyptian World, edited by Toby Wilkinson).

Autobiography of Bakenkhons reads, “a silent one, truly precise, who is content with maat and hates evil.” Autobiography of  Nefersekheru reads, “silent at the [right] time … all of whose words are exact.” Autobiography of Djehutyemheb reads, “I am a cool, silent one of Karnak, discreet of mouth in Thebes in my lifetime.” (Self-presentation in Ramessid Egypt, Elizabeth Frood)

Ancient Rome “a civilization based on the book and the register”, “The written word was all around them”:
Anthony Di Renzo, His Master’s Voice: Tiro and the Rise of the Roman Secretarial Class

Quintus Sulpicius Maximus:

Fatima al-Fihri, “oldest existing, and continually operating”:

Details of Muslim scientists and philosophers; siege of Baghdad; House of Wisdom; etc:
wikipedia.org; britannica.com

“Italy had become the most literate society in the world”:
Brian Milne, The History and Theory of Children’s Citizenship in Contemporary Societies

Bonvesin da la Riva, Giovanni Villani’s estimate of 67 to 83 percent, Florentine tax records “overall male literacy rate of about 80 percent for the city”, “Literacy was remarkably widespread in north-central Italy”:
John M. Najemy, Italy in the Age of the Renaissance:1300-1550

Florentine population, “literacy could extend to the very lowest rung of the populace”:
Robert D. Black, Education and Society in Florentine Tuscany: Teachers, Pupils and Schools, C. 1250-1500, Vol. I

Abundance of books in houses of Medieval Italian merchants:
Sophus A. Reinert and Robert Fredona, Merchants and the Origins of Capitalism (Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 18-021, September 2017)

Differences in literacy in Catholic and Protestant countries of early modern Europe:
Richard L. Venezky, The Development of Literacy in the Industrialized Nations of the West (from the Handbook of Reading Research Vol. II, edited by Rebecca Barr, Michael L. Kamil, Peter B. Mosenthal, P. David Pearson)

Jewish regard for education:
Maristella Botticini and Zvi Eckstein, The Chosen Few: How Education Shaped Jewish History, 70-1492

Sweden’s history of market reforms and social welfare reforms:

Sweden’s 1842 law:

Literacy for marrying in Finnish Church:

Education and intellectual culture in Finland:
Amanda Ripley, The Smartest Kids in the World (chapter 5);

Finland’s culture of literacy:
Pirjo Sinko, Main Factors Behind the Good PISA Reading Results in Finland (http://www.ifla.org/news/main-factors-behind-the-good-pisa-reading-results-in-finland)


Reserved nature of Finns:

The Chinese saved 680 million out of poverty:

Fall of Civilization

“You had no time to read, even if you knew how, for life had become hard”:
Charles Van Doren, A History of Knowledge


Shift from a culture of character to a culture of personality:
Warren Susman, Culture as History: The Transformation of American Society in the Twentieth Century (In chapter 14, Susman describes the myriad trends that led to this transformation.)

Progressive education and other educational reforms of 20th century, “We violate the child’s nature and render difficult”:
Richard Hofstadter, Anti-intellectualism in American Life

The US expenditure on education in relation to the OECD average:

Introversion to be included in American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual:

Celebrities on autism spectrum:

“differs so markedly and uniquely from anything reported so far”:

Autism Epidemic:

Late talking children misdiagnosed with autism spectrum disorders:
Stephen M. Camarata, Late-Talking Children: A Symptom or a Stage? 

Yutori Kyoiku:


http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-37415781; https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/Political-Islam-as-dangerous-as-Hindutva-B.-Ekbal/article16852930.ece

Progressive educational reforms such as the 1994 national curriculum reforms in Sweden are a possible reason causes for educational decline of scandinavian countries:
Gabriel Heller Sahlgren, Real Finnish Lessons, The true story of an education superpower.

College majors and intended SAT scores:

Devil Bill’s life:
Ron Chernow, Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. 

Only a third of Americans accept evolution through natural selection:

Projects estimating the replication rates in various fields:

Prinz, F., Schlange, T. & Asadullah, K. Believe it or not: how much can we rely on published data on potential drug targets?. Nat Rev Drug Discov 10, 712 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd3439-c1

“The power of bias in economics research”, John Ioannidis, T.D. Stanley and Hristos Doucouliagos, Economic Journal, October 2017.

“Evaluating replicability of laboratory experiments in economics”, Colin Camerer et al, Science, March 2016.

Open Science Collaboration (2015). Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science 349:aac4716. doi: 10.1126/science.aac4716

Camerer, C.F., Dreber, A., Holzmeister, F. et al. Evaluating the replicability of social science experiments in Nature and Science between 2010 and 2015. Nat Hum Behav 2, 637–644 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-018-039

Power failure: why small sample size undermines the reliability of neuroscience.

Button KS, Ioannidis JP, Mokrysz C, Nosek BA, Flint J, Robinson ES, Munafò MR

Nat Rev Neurosci. 2013 May; 14(5):365-76.

News reports on the reproducibility crisis in Psychology:

Eastman Kodak, “It’s not enough to be able to do a conjoint analysis”:
Daniel Goleman, Working with Emotional Intelligence

George Eastman, “let a patent go uncontested than bear- hug anyone. Taciturn, cautious, shy, and modest — these characteristics of Eastman”, “usually acted like a withdrawn adolescent in social situations”, “he was quite shy”:
Elizabeth Brayer, George Eastman: A Biography

“We went through that stage in Apple”:
http://www.evancarmichael.com/library/evan-carmichael2/Steve-Jobs-Top-10-Rules-for-success–Part-2-OF-3.html  (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rQKis2Cfpeo)

“Every time we hire someone, he or she should raise the bar”:
Brad Stone, The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon

“We don’t always recruit for specific positions”: https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/2000/09/03/child-prodigy-online-pioneer/2ab207dc-d13a-4204-8949-493686e43415/

A few quotes from top business leaders about MBAs: https://medium.com/@dexter.shawn/15-successful-entrepreneurs-give-us-their-thoughts-on-the-mba-program-fbae2c7b954a

Elon Musk says “They don’t teach people to think in MBA schools”:

Peter Thiel, “high extrovert/low conviction people”:
Reddit AMA  https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2g4g95/peter_thiel_technology_entrepreneur_and_investor/

“But give  woman culture—let her thread the many paths of science”:
Ron Chernow, Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. 

Quotes of Wordsworth:
Wren & Martin, High School English Grammar and Composition Book (Regular Edition)

Steve Jobs, “I think there’s actually very little distinction between an artist and a scientist”:

Caliph al-Mamun’s support for Western philosophy and science:

South Korea’s annual college entrance exam:

Decline of educational attainment in subsequent generations of immigrants in America (Immigrant Paradox):
Yanwei Zhang, Immigrant Generational Differences in Academic Achievement and Its Growth: The Case of Asian American High School Students.

Ethnic communities in Britain and their academic achievement: http://www.bbc.com/news/education-35958498; http://www.bbc.com/news/education-34778517

Sundar Pichai, his rise from modest beginnings:



Intellect and Contemplation

Aristotle’s conception of human psyche; man a rational animal:
Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics, Book 1, Chapter 13 (from Jonathan Barnes, The Complete Works of Aristotle)

Pleasures of the mind preferable to those of the body; Contemplation as the most pleasurable activity; Contemplation a divine activity, Intellect highest quality in man and contemplation highest activity:
Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics, Book 10, Chapter 7 (from Jonathan Barnes, The Complete Works of Aristotle)

Plato’s tripartite soul:
Plato, The Republic, Book 4 (Translated by Benjamin Jowett)

“appropriate for the rational part [intellect] to rule rule, since it is really wise and exercises foresight on behalf of the whole soul”:
Plato, The Republic, 441e4-5 (Translated by G. M. A.Grube)

Parable of the chariot from Katha Upanishad:
Katha Upanishad (1.3.3-1.3.13), The Upanishads, Part 2 (SBE15) (Max Muller)

“the mass of mankind are evidently quite slavish in their tastes”:
Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics, Book 1, Chapter 5 (from Jonathan Barnes, The Complete Works of Aristotle)

“Keeping silent and thinking; studying without satiety”:
http://www.acmuller.net/con-dao/analects.html (Analects 7.2, A Charles Muller’s translation)

“One morning he was thinking about something which he could not resolve”:
Plato, Symposium (Translated by Benjamin Jowett)

Endure electric shock than sit in silence and solitude:
Matthew Hutson. “People Prefer Electric Shocks to Being Alone With Their Thoughts.” The Atlantic.  https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2014/07/people-prefer-electric-shocks-to-being-alone-with-their-thoughts/373936/

Bill Gates, “think week”:
Robert A. Guth.  “In Secret Hideaway, Bill Gates Ponders Microsoft’s Future”. Wall Street Journal.  https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB111196625830690477

Warren Buffett, “he spends 80 percent of his working day reading and thinking”:
Shane Parrish. “The Warren Buffett formula: How you can get smarter.” The Week.  http://theweek.com/articles/460783/warren-buffett-formula-how-smarter

Warren Buffett, “I insist on a lot of time being spent”:

Donald Trump, “It’s time I use to read and reflect”; “The noise level here is very high”:
Donald J Trump, How to get rich

Narendra Modi,  “I actually enjoy loneliness“, “I do not enjoy too much of a crowd”, “I went alone and only went to places where I would not find another human being”, “Just think”:
Nilanjan Mukhopadhyay, Narendra Modi: The Man, The Times (The quotes are from the chapter “The initiation”)

Steve Jobs, “stayed purposefully alone on the sidelines”:
Betsy Morris. Wired Magazine. “Steve Jobs, Obsession, and Those Whales”. https://www.wired.com/2011/10/column-jobs-obsession-whales/

Silence – A Key to Wisdom and Serenity

“Silence is only frightening to people who are compulsively verbalizing”:
William S Burroughs, The Job: Interviews with William S. Burroughs

“A happy life must be to a great extent a quiet life”:
Bertrand Russell, The Conquest of Happiness

Finland, “Finns think if there’s no important topic to discuss”: http://www.bbc.com/travel/story/20181016-how-the-finnish-survive-without-small-talk

Plutarch’s advice against extempore speech, “For perfection is only attained by neither speaking”:
On Education (from Plutarch’s Morals)

The Bible quotations:
The New American Bible 2002.11.11 (http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0839/_INDEX.HTM):

Bill Gates, “he can’t make small talk”:

Bill Gates, “Small talk still doesn’t have much appeal to Bill”: https://www.zdnet.com/article/my-dinner-with-bill-gates/

Bill Gates, “Bill is difficult to engage in small talk”: https://www.theverge.com/2015/1/22/7870497/bill-gates-interview-future-verge-guest-editor

Jeff Bezos ” Bezos is better at business than he is at small talk”: https://www.dmagazine.com/publications/d-magazine/2014/july/matt-rutledge-woot-has-a-new-deal-mediocre-corporation/?single=1

Elon musk, “he’s not willing to suffer fools or small talk”:
Ashlee Vance, Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future

Koranic verses:
The Holy Quran (Koran) – English Translation of the Meanings by Abdullah Yusuf Ali

Other Islamic precepts against talkativeness:

Sayings attributed to Caliph Ali:

Sayings from Bhagavad Gita and Chanakya Niti:

Thiruvalluvar, Thirukkural, Book 1, Chapter 20

Vishnu Sharma, Panchatantra (Translated by Arthur W. Ryder)

“The ideal man is he who, in the midst of the greatest silence and solitude”:
Swami Vivekananda, Karma Yoga: Yoga of Action

“Do not spend your energy in talking”:
Swami Vivekananda, Inspired Talks by Swami Vivekananda

Aristotle’s Rhetoric:
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-rhetoric/    (“argumentative method becomes less effective, the worse the condition of the audience is”)

Confucius’ sayings:
Roger T. Ames, Henry Rosemont Jr., The Analects of Confucius: A Philosophical Translation 

German disdain for small talk:

German laws against noise:

“small tongue”:
Martha C. Nussbaum, Cultivating Humanity

Ancient Greece, “silence and secrecy distinguish the well-born”; Spartans, “they should keep their hands under their cloaks, walk in silence”:
Silvia Montiglio, Silence in the Land of Logos

Socrates talking highly about laconic speech and about the laconic habit of the seven wise men of ancient Greece:
Plato, Protagoras, 342e-343b

Sayings of the seven wise men of ancient Greece:

“The reason why we have two ears and only one mouth is that we may listen the more and talk the less.”:
Lives of Eminent Philosophers. Diogenes Laertius. R.D. Hicks. Cambridge. Harvard University Press. (http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0258%3Abook%3D7%3Achapter%3D1)

“Those who have enjoyed a truly noble and royal education”:
On Talkativeness (from Plutarch’s Morals)

“The first step in the acquisition of wisdom is silence”:

“to let mere lads speak extempore”:
On Education (from Plutarch’s Morals)

Philosophy finds talkativeness a disease”:
On Talkativeness (from Plutarch’s Morals)

Marcus Aurelius on silence, “Be neither a great talker, nor a great undertaker”:
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, Book 3, Passage 5

Seneca on silence, “Yet who does not know that the greatest fools drink the deepest of those pleasures of yours? or that vice is full of enjoyments, and that the mind itself suggests to itself many perverted, vicious forms of pleasure ? — in the first place arrogance, excessive self-esteem, swaggering precedence over other men, a shortsighted, nay, a blind devotion to his own interests, dissolute luxury, excessive delight springing from the most trifling and childish causes, and also talkativeness, pride that takes a pleasure in insulting others, sloth, and the decay of a dull mind which goes to sleep over itself”:
Seneca, On The Happy Life, Book XX (from Delphi complete works of Seneca the Younger)

Cicero on silence:
“Silence is one of the great arts of conversation”

Confucius, characteristics of Junzi:

Maimonides’ teachings:
Marc Angel, Maimonides’ Essential Teachings on Jewish Faith and Ethics

Counsels of wisdom from Babylon:
Wilfred G. Lambert, Babylonian Wisdom Literature

Importance of silence in Sioux culture, “If you ask him: “What is silence?” he will answer, “It is the Great Mystery! The holy silence is His voice!” If you ask: “What are the fruits of silence?” he will say: “They are self-control, true courage or endurance, patience, dignity, and reverence. Silence is the cornerstone of character.””:
Charles Alexander Eastman, The Soul of the Indian: An Interpretation

“Talent develops in quiet places”:

“If you are alone you belong entirely to yourself”:
Prasenjeet Kumar, Celebrating Quiet Artists: Stirring Stories of Introverted Artists Who the World Can’t Forget

“Most inventors and engineers I’ve met are like me”:
Susan Cain, Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking

The Instruction of Ptahhotep:
Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature: The Old and Middle Kingdoms

(Regarding the quotations about silence, the primary sources are as aforementioned.  However, other equally valid and credible translations are also sometimes used in the book – in order to keep the flow of writing consistent. Meaning and context are unchanged by these translations.)

Moral Character and Contentment in Life

“A great business is seldom if ever built up, except on lines”:
Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie

“nothing so likely to make a man’s fortune as virtue”; “In this piece it was my design to explain”; Franklin’s thirteen moral virtues:
Benjamin Franklin, The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin

“the truly quiet, good of character, patient, loved by people”:
R. B. Parkinson, The Tale of Sinuhe and Other Ancient Egyptian Poems, 1940-1640 BC

An example of tomb inscription that attests to ancient Egyptians’ reverence for ethical living:  “Inscriptions from the tomb of Nefer-Seshem-Re” c. 2300 BC (Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature: The Old and Middle Kingdoms)

Instruction for King Merikare:
Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature: The Old and Middle Kingdoms

“I will do nothing because of public opinion”:
Seneca, On The Happy Life, Book XX (from Delphi complete works of Seneca the Younger)

Happiness achieved by a virtuous life:
Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics, Book 1, Chapter 10 (from Jonathan Barnes, The Complete Works of Aristotle)

Doctrine of mean:
Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics, Book 2, Chapter 2 (from Jonathan Barnes, The Complete Works of Aristotle)

Moral virtues are to acquired by constant practice:
Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics, Book 2, Chapter 1 (from Jonathan Barnes, The Complete Works of Aristotle)

Courage is a mean between rashness and cowardice:
Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics, Book 3, Chapter 6 (from Jonathan Barnes, The Complete Works of Aristotle)

Petty man seeks what is apparently good rather than true good:
Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics, Book 3, Chapter 4 (from Jonathan Barnes, The Complete Works of Aristotle)

Pleasures of the body to be pursued only in moderation:
Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics, Book 7, Chapter 14 (from Jonathan Barnes, The Complete Works of Aristotle)

Socrates preferred city life:
In Plato’s Phaedrus, Socrates says, “Fields and trees will not teach me anything — the life of the streets will”

Man is by nature a political animal:
Aristotle, Politics, Book 1, Chapter 2 (from Jonathan Barnes, The Complete Works of Aristotle)

“he who has many friends has no friend,” “He does not expose himself needlessly to danger”:
Will Durant, Story of Philosophy (Will Durant’s quote “he who has many friends has no friend” is a paraphrase of the text in Nicomachean Ethics, Book 9, Chapter 10)

Friendship based on virtue is better than those based on pleasure or utility:
Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics, Book 8, Chapter 3 (from Jonathan Barnes, The Complete Works of Aristotle)

“friends in excess of those who are sufficient for our own life are superfluous, and hindrances to the noble life”:
Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics, Book 9, Chapter 10 (from Jonathan Barnes, The Complete Works of Aristotle)

Plutarch, “do not be too ready to strike up a friendship”:
On Education (from Plutarch’s Morals)

Prevalence of drug addiction across the world: Hannah Ritchie (2018) – “Opioids, cocaine, cannabis and illicit drugs”. Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: ‘https://ourworldindata.org/illicit-drug-use’ [Online Resource]

World Prison Brief: World Prison Population List, twelfth edition, by Roy Walmsley

Gunfire incidents in American schools:

Paul Graham, “When I was in school, suicide was a constant topic”:

“The students in his class—many of them diplomats’ kids”:
Alice Schroeder, The Snowball: Warren Buffett and the Business of Life

“The big question about how people behave is whether they’ve got an Inner Scorecard”:
Alice Schroeder, The Snowball: Warren Buffett and the Business of Life

Aesop’s fable of The Man, the Boy, and the Donkey:
Aesop’s fables, retold by Joseph Jacobs (Harvard Classics)

Japanese traditionally do everything in groups:

John Doerr, “absolutely no social life”:

Steve Jobs, “I’ve got the greatest family in the world”:

John D. Rockefeller, “Club life did not appeal to me”:
Ron Chernow, Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr.

Raymond Dalio, “Concern for others”:
Ray Dalio, Principles

Peter Thiel, “many of the more successful entrepreneurs seem to be suffering from a mild form of”:

Marissa Mayer, “It wasn’t until I was a professional woman”: https://www.businessinsider.com.au/marissa-mayer-biography-2014-1

Marissa Mayer, “dodge conversations on her way to go study”:

Angela Merkel, “she was uninterested in clothes”:

Mark Zuckerberg’s Facebook profile and the role of publicists:

Nordic reserve:

East Asian reserve:
Susan Cain, Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking (Part 3: Do all cultures have an extrovert ideal?)

“The Japanese are taught, from childhood, to avert their gaze or look at a person’s throat”:
Intercultural Communication: A Reader, By Larry A. Samovar, Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel, Carolyn Sexton Roy

“Shame may restrain what law does not prohibit”:
Seneca, Troades 

Seneca on blushing:
Seneca, On the Blush of Modesty, Book XI of The Moral Epistles

Marcus Aurelius, gentle and meek:
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, Book 1

Prophet Muhammad’s modest personality, “Every religion has a character”:

“does not bring anything except good” “passed by a man who was admonishing his brother regarding Haya“:
Sahih al-Bukhari » Book of Good Manners and Form (Al-Adab)

Prophet Muhammad, He always looked down. His sight was focused more to the ground than towards the sky:
Shama’il Muhammadiyah » The Noble Features Of Rasoolullah (https://sunnah.com/shamail/1)

“Men cannot admire me for the sharpness of my wits”:
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, Book 5, Passage 5

For as it is not one swallow or one fine day”:
Will Durant, Story of Philosophy

Amish success in small scale businesses:
Erik Wesner, Success Made Simple: An Inside Look at Why Amish Businesses Thrive

Why it pays to be a jerk:

Lying is an important social skill for children: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/11290612/Lying-is-an-important-social-skill-for-young-children.html

Gallup’s finding of increasing prevalence of worry, stress, sadness, and anger:
2019 Gallup Global Emotions Report

An interactive list of countries and their scores in the 2019 Gallup Global Emotions Report is available here:

World Bank homicide figures:

Carney, Dana R.; Cuddy, Amy J.C.; Yap, Andy J. (January 10, 2010). “Power Posing: Brief Nonverbal Displays Affect Neuroendocrine Levels and Risk Tolerance”. Psychological Science. 21 (10): 1363–1368. doi:10.1177/0956797610383437.

Smith, Kristopher; Apicella, Coren (2017). “Winners, losers, and posers: The effect of power poses on testosterone and risk-taking following competition”. Hormones and Behavior. 92: 172–181. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2016.11.003.

Fleeson, William; Malanos, Adriane B.; & Achille, Noelle M. An intraindividual process approach to the relationship between extraversion and positive affect: Is acting extraverted as “good” as being extraverted? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 83(6), Dec 2002.

Charles M. Ching, A. Timothy Church, Marcia S. Katigbak, Jose Alberto S. Reyes, Junko Tanaka-Matsumi, Shino Takaoka, Hengsheng Zhang, Jiliang Shen, Rina Mazuera Arias, Brigida Carolina Rincon, Fernando A. Ortiz. The manifestation of traits in everyday behavior and affect: A five-culture study. Journal of Research in Personality, 2014.

Margolis, S., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2019). Experimental manipulation of extraverted and introverted behavior and its effects on well-being. Journal of Experimental Psychology.

Lawn, R.B., Slemp, G.R. & Vella-Brodrick, D.A. J Happiness Stud (2019) 20: 2055. 

Jacques-Hamilton, R., Sun, J., & Smillie, L. D. (2019). Costs and benefits of acting extraverted: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 148(9), 1538-1556.

Leikas, S. & Ilmarinen, V-J., Oct 2017, Happy Now, Tired Later? Extraverted and Conscientious Behavior Are Related to Immediate Mood Gains, but to Later Fatigue, Journal of Personality.

“Nothing in the affairs of men is worthy of great anxiety,”:
Plato, Republic, Book X 604c

A life hereafter would be no greater miracle than the present life:
The aforementioned concept is borrowed from a passage in Andrew Carnegie’s autobiography.

Importance of Education

“The man in the street does not know a star in the sky”:
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Essays

“As for the fool unable to hear, nothing can ever be done for him”:

“You are put in water, the water becomes foul”:
Samuel Noah Kramer, History Begins at Sumer Thirty Nine Firsts in Recorded History (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981)

Plato’s views on democracy and tyranny:
Plato, The Republic, Book 8 (Translated by Benjamin Jowett)

“A soil naturally good becomes by neglect barren”; “Aristippus on one occasion rebuked an empty-headed parent”:
On Education (from Plutarch’s Morals)

“To study and not think is a waste. To think and not study is dangerous.”: http://www.acmuller.net/con-dao/analects.html (Analects 2.15, A Charles Muller’s translation)

“Knowledge is sure to prove useful in one way or another”:
Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie

“May I walk every day on the banks of the water”:
Mark, Joshua J. “Ancient Egyptian Culture.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Last modified January 13, 2013. https://www.ancient.eu/Egyptian_Culture/

“My son, from your youth up choose instruction”:
Sirach 6.18 (Bible, Revised Standard Version)

“I am a man who in eagerness for study forgets to eat”:
http://www.acmuller.net/con-dao/analects.html (Analects 7.19, A Charles Muller’s translation)

© Copyright RS 2016